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Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?
A lot of people are getting confused with the meaning of the dyslexia.
What is dyslexia?
There are actually two different meanings of dyslexia.
The first meaning is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. Literally, the word dyslexia refers to difficulty with words. Those people that have difficulty in reading has dyslexia.
The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This meaning is usually used by adults with dyslexia or parents of dyslexics. In the application aspect, dyslexia refers to different symptoms like problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.
As you can see ,the meaning of the word dyslexia really greatly depends on how it is being used.
In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall attempted to subdivide dyslexia and describe each kind. The first ideas were about the double deficit dyslexia, surface dyslexia and phonological dyslexia.
Here are the types of dyslexia:
A. Surface dyslexia
One symptom of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. For example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty
B. Phonological dyslexia
Phonological dyslexia actually refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. People find it hard to read new words if they have phonological dyslexia.
C. Double deficit dyslexia
Double deficit dyslexia is the word that they used to individuals that have phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia.
D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia
The visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia are from the magnocellular theory. In this theory, people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells that can be found in the thalamus part of brain. This area of the brain is actually the part that processes all of the auditory information and visual information.
There are studies that proves that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.
This means that those children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.
Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that will create a language. The English alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have a lot of different kinds of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia is problems with the identification and manipulation of letters in spelling, writing and reading.